List of Common Changes Resulting From A Traumatic Brain Injury
• Fatigue.
• Sleep Dysfunction, e.g. insomnia, day and night confusion.
• Lack of stamina.
• Problems planning, organizing and initiating tasks.
• Difficulties with multi-tasking and sequencing, e.g. keeping track of two things at once.
• Need for structure and direction to accomplish tasks.
• Poor concentration, attention and memory.
• Problems retrieving information from memory.
• Although intelligence remains intact, there is slowness in processing information, particularly new information, especially if fatigued or over-stimulated.
• Problems with pacing activities
• Difficulty with judgement and decision making.
• Perseveration, i.e. difficulty switching from one thought or activity to another.
• Distractibility, confusion.
• Irritability, “short fuse”.
• Impulsivity.
• Difficulty dealing with change.
• Difficulty reading social/conversational cues leading to awkward or inappropriate behaviour.
• Isolating self as feeling different, and therefore treated differently.
• Difficulty “keeping up” in social situations.
• Poor coping strategies which impact on social and work relationships.
• Vertigo (dizziness), light headed feeling.
• Tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
• Light or sound sensitivity.
• Smell or taste alterations.
• Visual, speech and hearing disturbances.
• Mood disorders: depression; anxiety; anger management difficulty.
• Emotional lability, e.g. crying for no apparent reason.
• Emotional/behavioural outbursts.
• Compulsive talkativeness.
• Balance and co-ordination problems.
• Personality change.
• Chronic pain including headaches.
• Inability to return to work, or if able, at reduced capacity and with great effort.
• Family breakdown.
Each brain injury is different. A survivor may experience any combination of symptoms or none at all. Severity of symptoms vary with each individual and may change over time.

Adapted from Brain Injury Association of Toronto